Marriage: A Changing Tradition

Bonding of pairs had begun in the Stone Age. It was used to organize and control sexual conduct by providing a stable structure for rearing of children and performing daily tasks.

Different countries have different cultures. The traditional marriage is still practised in the traditional westernized family. In ancient times BCE, people engaged in polygamy. In the Bible, King Solomon had married 700 wives and 300 concubines. In the 19th century, many countries like China, Africa and among America Mormons accept a man with multiple wives.

polygamyPolygamy is very common in the world of Muslims. The whole idea behind marriage is sexually exclusive and it is the romantic union between a man and woman that was developed recently.

According to the Harvard Historian, Nancy Cott the population consists of monogamous households that were in tiny portions in Western Europe and North America. The first evidence of a marriage contract and ceremonies was seen some 4000 years ago in Mesopotamia.

In the days of historians, marriages were mainly done to preserve power of the king and the ruling party. Usually, the kings preserve their power by getting their daughters married to their alliances to acquire land and also to get their legitimate heirs. Women could not say much regarding their marriage. They were not free to select their partner. According to the Latin word, Matrimonium, the whole purpose of marrying is to produce legal heirs.

matrimoniumIn Rome, marriage was a civil affair and it was governed by the imperial law. But when the whole empire collapsed in the 5th century, it was the church courts whom looked after the process of marrying. This elevated a social ceremony like marriage to be a holy union of two souls.

In the middle age, the church’s power to influence marriage grew more. In the year 1215, marriage had become one of the seven sacraments of the church and it was performed with all the social rites like baptism and penance.

In the 16th century, the church made it necessary to perform social event as weddings in public by a priest and a witness. Previously, marriage was considered to be serious matter and it did not involve any fragile emotions. Love and marriage didn’t go well along with each other. In the 2nd century B.C.E., a Roman politician was expelled from the senate house for his disgraceful behaviour of kissing his wife in public.

In the 12th and 13th century, extramarital affairs were considered to be the highest form of romance. In the 18th century, some improvement was made and marriage was not considered to gain wealth or status but was to make love. The people took responsibility of their own life to put an end to unhappy unions. The cases of divorce had become much more common.

best gift of massage therapy Etobicoke offersDifferent cultures have different beliefs. However, in most of the cultures, wedding has been regarded as an auspicious event as it marks the beginning of a new relationship. Different people marry for different reasons but most of them marry to have a long lasting and intimate relationship that is recognized by law.

The federal, provincial and the territorial government share jurisdiction on marriage and all the matters pertaining to the family in Canada. It is the responsibility of the federal government to look over the jurisdiction of law and make an individual capable of marrying legally. They are essential for a valid marriage.

In case marriage fails, it is declared to be void ab initio. This means that marriage never existed in the eyes of law. To marry legally, both the parties should have mental capacity or should understand the marriage contract and take full responsibility and duty that is involved in any marriage. Both of the parties entering in marriage should give free consent to marry and should not be pressured by anyone. No mistake should be made in the identity of people involved in the bond of marriage. Both the parties should be of a legal age.

In the 18th century, more improvement was made and marriage was not considered to gain wealth or status but was to done as an act of love. The people involved took the responsibility to put an end to unhappy unions. The cases of divorce had become much more common.

In the 20th century, women grew in power by different provisions of law. It strengthened a women’s status by making them equal to men. They can now seek the help of law if any wrong deed is done to them like sexual harassment, mental torture or any other form of crime.

We all have become so modern that we are even accepting gay marriages. Our laws are changing from time to time and effective laws have been made to safeguard their interest. All the citizens have rights to live and be happy.

The Evolution of the Phone

Ever since Alexander Graham Bell invented telephone in 1876, it has played an important role in our lives. It has become a thing that one cannot imagine his life without. It is said that Graham Bell had made the first call to his assistant and said “Mr. Watson, come here. I want you”. Bell was the first person to use bi – directional electronic transmission of words. He had held the first patent for inventing a telephone.

Alexander Graham Bell and Antonio MeucciHowever, there are lots of confusion as Elisha Gray, Antonio Meucci and Innocenzo Manzetti claim that they are the true inventor of telephone. Telephones have now become an indispensable innovation of time and you can get personalised key cards and helps you to connect to the world and it can also intensify in future.

Scott Stein, a senior editor of CNET, highlighted the ways in which Smartphone’s can make basic communication. It enables you to make payments at ease, unlock the doors, check the home’s temperature and make use of entertainment and this enables to start growing. It has changed the way we interact with each other in the world. Stein says that live communication and expectations of the people have increased now. People can now communicate with the help of text messages and it can become a virtual reality along with a phone call.

After forty years of the initial call, Bell and his assistant had demonstrated transcontinental calls from New York to San Francisco. In 1956, calls become transatlantic and it expands from time and space. Another invention in 1920, Rotary Phone, gave a touchtone phone in the 1960s. This facilitates the consumers to make dialling faster, add different elements to interact with the devices.

The number keypad and letters featured in it can make texting faster and more fun. Another important invention took place in 1973; the first cell phone call was made. It was wireless and was completely mobile. The first call was made by an employee of Motorola, Marty Cooper to its competitor, AT & T to declare its achievements. He revealed that the first call was for 60 minutes and it took place in Midtown Manhattan. He had called while walking through the streets and nearly got injured or died by a cab since he was distracted byhis phone call. He called it the most historical event of his life.

See various transformations made in telephones here.


Candlestick phones were very popular in the 1890 – 1930 phase. The phone consisted of two pieces. The mouthpiece made the candlestick position while the receiver was held close to the ears. However, this style could not last for long and soon combined mouthpiece and receiver were made in a single unit.

Old phone

The Rotary Phone

This form of phone had become very popular and the users just had to rotate to dial the number. With the advent of the push button phones, these phones became less famous.


In 1963, Touch Tone was invented by AT & T. This allows dialling numbers in the keypad to make phone calls. It was also called “blue boxes” because users could make free phone calls for a longer distance.

Answering machine

The answering machine allowed the callers to leave a message on the phone of the person at the other end is not answering the call.

Portable phones

These phones are cordless and look like remote controller of a TV. They were the small-scale cell phones that allows people to speak from anywhere in the house.

Motorola DynaTAC

Motorola DynaTAC 8000X was the first mobile phone that was officially released in 1984. This phone could make call for 30 minutes and was modestly prices at $3,995.

Nokia 5110

One of the classic inventions was Nokia 5110 in its rugged looks and long life of battery. It had a Snake game that could be played in its 47 × 84 pixel screen.

Caller ID

There was a time when the people had to remember the telephone numbers of your loved ones. With the invention of Caller ID, you can decide if you have to attend the call or not. A standard phone has caller ID in it.

Motorola StarTAC

Motorola StarTAC was the first flip phone and it was a huge success. It was introduced in 1996 and it had sales worth 60 million. It weighed about 3.1 ounces and was designed with innovative clamshell.

Sanyo SCP–5300

This phone was released in 2003 and it was the first phone that featured camera. If you compare the camera of the phone with today’s camera, you will find it to be pathetic. It could take 640 × 480 pixel image and could store only 10 to 15 images. It had an in- built flash in it.


Other innovations that took place after these were Palm Treo, Motorola RAZR,  BlackBerry, iPhone, Google phone, Galaxy series and a few other smartphones I’m sure I’m forgetting to mention.


The Role of The Female Aggressor

Generally, people don’t talk about domestic violence that is done on women. However, it is something that is very important to be discussed. It has been found that about 98% of victims of trafficking for being exploited sexually have been performed with the women and girls.

In 2011, about 19,000 rapes and sexual assaults had taken place in the military. Girls who are less than 15 years old are more likely to die while giving birth to the child. Pregnancy causes death of girls aged 15 – 19 yrs. Incidents related to domestic violence take place in every 15 seconds in U.S. Rape is one form of violence that takes place against women that is prevalent in colleges or on university campuses. There are some cases, however, where women are sometimes the abusers.

No domestic violenceDomestic violence is a popular concern among people. It consists of all the dangers that women can face in being mistreated by men. According to a study, a woman is more likely to be killed or injured severely by their male partners yet rarely are the roles reversed where men are the victims. In the past, many innocent women lost their lives through no fault of their own.

Lets take a look at the other side of the story now. In more recent studies, more than 8,300,000 men become victims of domestic violence every year. Every 37.8 seconds in North America, a man becomes the victim of domestic abuse. These are approximate statistics on the amount of abused men and the actual result can be even more shocking if we consider the fact that many never come forward and disclose the truth.

The executive director and the founder of the Domestic Abuse Helpline for Men, Jan Brown, said that domestic violence is about abuse, control and power and it is about dangerous situations that men get surrounded in. The hotline is there for when they seek help. He said that it does not matter if it is a man or a woman, the thing that matters is whether any form of domestic violence is taking place.

In 2011, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected all necessary information of about domestic violence14, 322 individuals who were aged between 18 and 28. It also questioned about the romantic or the sexual relationship that they were engaged in for the last five years and if it involved any kind of violence or not. This study revealed that out of 18,761 relationships about 76 percent were non – violent in nature while 24 % involved violence. About half of them were reciprocal in nature. This means that both the partners were violent against each other. 53 % of men and 49% of women experienced good relationships. They were non – reciprocal in nature.

The most shocking statistics is that in most of the cases, women were found responsible for domestic violence (25 percent against 11 percent). In 71 percent cases of non reciprocal violence by the partner, woman is found to be the main instigator. It is believed that the female aggression in a relationship is mainly for self – defence. Talking about the injury, a man has been found to be more injured in comparison to the women. 25% of times men got injured against 20% of women.

The National statistics of the Great Britain reveal that if 1.2 million women experienced domestic violence then 8,000,000 men also experienced the same in the U.K. Only 40% men suffered from domestic violence.

stop-domestic-violence-logoThe Psychology Department of the State University of California states that after examining various investigations, studies and review, it has been found that the women are as or even more aggressive than men in relationship with their spouses or male partners in comparison with the men. Results show that as an intimate partner men become the victim of aggression of women in a relationship. All the reports made by organisations like National Institute of Health, American Sociological Association, Psychology of Women Quarterly have also similar findings in this case.

There have been many accusations made in North America. We are not solely blaming the male or the female; we are just trying to broaden the definition of the abuser and the victim. Such is the reality and the truth of the domestic violence is sad in a place like North America. The fact is that both partners are equally responsible for something that happens like domestic violence.

If mutual respect for both partners is absent in any relation, events like this is more prone to happen. It is very wrong to make a statement about the domestic abuse based on the gender because what people generally perceive is very different from the reality.

New Traditions VS Old Traditions

What is it that makes tradition? (I feel like Tevia from Fiddler on the roof right now!) Its a set of quality beliefs and practices that are passed down form one generation to another. Or even in the micro sense of being routines practice within a lifetime. Should I check Websters on that one-I think I’m pretty close…

One thing I think is failing in our society is the tradition of passing down VALUES. I live in California and it seems the only tradition that is being passed down here is feeding ones ego and looking out for yourself. The new generation coming up is even more soulless in the ways they are dealing with relationships in their life. I’m mainly referencing the addiction to cell phones that is increasingly becoming an epidemic among the general population.

There used to be more playtime OUTSIDE with kids. This digital era is nurturing our future to become robots. The amount of time one spends on thier cell phone is alarmingly high and I believe it will continue the trend until the prophecy of Ray Kurtzweil becomes reality.

His “Singularity” theory predicts there will be a point of singularity when man becomes machine.  The amount of evidence of this movement is very compelling. I see it happening already to the drone faced, emotionless teenagers who spends a third of their waking hours nose deep in his cell phone. If he or she could crawl in there-they would!

I suppose I would liek to end this rant with the mere notion of reminding everyone that people are fun too! The world is an amazing place to live in and if your attention is in the digital confines of a box 320px wide, well…. you’re gonna miss all the good stuff!